Harvard Referencing

The Harvard Referencing style is the one we will be using throughout this package. This method of acknowledging other people's work in your own uses an in-text citation. This refers to an end-of-text reference, in a final section called either 'References' or 'Bibliography'.


Bertrand Russell considers that the influences on Plato "speaking broadly, were: Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus, and Socrates" (Russell, 1961, p. 122)

The citation is in brackets. The reference in the References section is this:

Russell, B., 1961, History of Western Philosophy, second edition. London: George, Allen and Unwin.

Another version could be:

Russell B (1961) History of Western Philosophy (2nd ed.), George, Allen & Unwin, London.

Different Styles of Writing a Harvard Reference

Exactly the same information is given, but with differences in order and punctuation.

The in-text citation will almost always have the format - (Surname, year, page numbers) - in that order, with that punctuation, and in brackets.

However, the end-of-text reference can be in various styles.

What matters is that the referencing style is consistent within a piece of work.

Sometimes your tutor will ask for a particular style of reference.

Titles of books, journals and websites can be produced in italics, or normal text with or without "inverted commas" depending on the style of reference required by your tutor.

If you mention a title as a source in your text, then you must put this in inverted commas in the end-of-text reference now that word processing makes this easy to do (in handwritten work, such titles are underlined).

Titles of chapters within books, or articles in a journal, are in normal text, sometimes within inverted commas (but always within inverted commas if mentioned in your text).