Style Issues: Citations

The basic citation is, as you have learned, (Author, year, page number) eg (Russell, 1961, p. 122).  However, you can add variety to your style of writing in ways like this:

As Russell (1961, p. 122) observes, Plato was particularly influenced by Pythagoras and Socrates, among others.

The same information is there - author, year and page number.

Another possibility:

In his History of Western Philosophy (1961), Bertrand Russell discusses the influences on Plato. He comments, "The purely philosophical influences on Plato were also such as to predispose him to Sparta. These influences, speaking broadly, were: Pythagoras, Parmenides, Heraclitus, and Socrates." (p. 122)

Whatever the style you use, make sure that the three pieces of information are there:

  1. author
  2. date
  3. page(s).